有关PVC的常见问题

PVC is a thermoplastic made of chlorine (derived from industrial grade salt) 和 carbon (derived predominantly from oil / gas via ethylene). It is less dependent than other polymers on crude oil or natural gas, 这是不可再生, 因此可被视为一种自然资源节约塑料, 与聚乙烯等塑料相比, PP, 宠物和PS, 哪些国家完全依赖石油或天然气. This chlorine gives to PVC excellent fire resistance: when PVC is set on fire, the flames go out as the fire source is removed due to the material’s self-extinguishing properties.

PVC pipe is one of the safest 和 most tested materials used in North America. 60多年来, 生产的各个方面, 使用和处置经过政府和独立认证和检测机构的评估和批准.

PVC is approved for use around the world in water distribution 和 transmission, 消费品和医疗应用. 它是如此的安全,它被用于静脉医疗管, 和 it is the pipe of choice for ecologically sensitive environments like salt water aquariums, 哪些必须使用最惰性和最安全的管道材料可用.

PVC pipe meets or exceeds all required health 和 safety st和ards 和 regulations governed by the U.S. 和 Canadian Safe Drinking Water Acts 和 other international statutes. Its use is monitored by independent agencies like NSF International — 和 government bodies like the U.S. Environment Protection Agency ensure its safety through m和atory regular testing. 美国.S. 美国食品药品监督管理局和消费者产品安全委员会已经确认PVC是一种安全产品.

Claims that it’s toxic have been refuted by the scientific community. 有证据表明,它不会滤出铅等有毒化学物质, 镉, BPA or plasticizers; release harmful organotins; pose major hazards in its manufacture, use 和 disposal; create a dangerous bio-film; nor form dioxins as water passes through, 等.

此外, PVC管不可能滤出增塑剂, BPA, 铅和镉, since these aren’t even used in its manufacture nor are they part of its compound.

Uni-Bell PVC管协会
(刊于《mg老虎机游戏大厅》1990年夏季版)

PVC早在1835年就被发现了, 但是,关于氯乙烯聚合的确切报道直到大约35年后才出现. 在那个时候, the material was reported to be an off-white solid that could be heated to 130 degrees C without degradation.
PVC remained a laboratory curiosity for many years, probably because of its intractable nature. 这种聚合物对大多数化学物质都是惰性的,而且非常坚韧。. 这些特性最终促使科学家们考虑将PVC应用于耐久性和韧性理想的领域.

In 1912 the first industrial developments were initiated in Germany. Throughout the 1920s, attempts were made to use PVC copolymers that were easier to process than PVC. 这些早期的尝试仅略微成功.

1932年,第一批聚氯乙烯共聚物制成的管子被生产出来. Nearly three years later the first PVC pipes were produced using a roll mill 和 hydraulic extruder. 这两个步骤包括在轧钢机上熔化PVC粉末,然后将生产出来的板材轧制成钢坯. The PVC could then be processed in a discontinuously working ram extruder to make pipe. This process was adapted from that used for celluloid 和 was really ill-fitted for PVC. 结果,这些产品的质量常常令人怀疑. 不过, these early PVC pipes were deemed suitable for drinking water supply piping 和 waste water piping because of their chemical resistance, 无味的缺乏味道或气味和内部表面光滑的. 从1936年到1939年,德国中部有400多户住宅安装了PVC饮用水和废水管道. 在莱比锡铺设了各种PVC测试管道, 德累斯顿, 马格德堡, 柏林, 汉堡, 科隆, 1936年至1941年在海德堡和威斯巴登.

Both the pipelines for chemicals 和 those for water supply 和 waste water came up to expectations, 上述城市的管道试验也是如此, 除了第二次世界大战造成的破坏. The PVC pipes installed in central Germany are still in use today without any major problems.

Although product developers began to use PVC in a variety of ways – in shoe heels, 高尔夫球, 和雨衣, to name just a few – its application increased significantly during World War II.

PVC turned out to be an excellent replacement for rubber insulation in wiring 和 was used extensively on U.S. 军舰. 1945年以后,它在和平时期的使用量激增.
在美国.S.在美国,PVC的材料是天然气和岩盐.

  • 天然气在压力下加热形成乙烯. 这叫做“开裂”."
  • Common rock salt (sodium chloride) is split by electrolysis to produce chlorine 和 lye (sodium hydroxide).
  • Chlorine 和 ethylene are combined to form vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).
  • VCM分子端对端连接(聚合)形成长链的聚氯乙烯聚合物(塑料).
  • The thermoplastic PVC powder is compounded, melted 和 extruded into pipes.

市政水 & 下水道传输
排水
灌溉 & 管道
电缆

蓝色:饮用水|
白色:灌溉和水
格林:下水道
紫色:再生水
灰色:电缆

是的, studies on PVC pipe made in Europe in the 1930s 和 been in continuous use suggest a very long useful life for these products of a hundred years or more, which will generally exceed the lifespan of the structures they are installed in.

此外,PVC具有令人印象深刻的长期耐久性记录. When water utility managers 和 engineering firms were surveyed in a study sponsored by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation, 他们提到了耐腐蚀性, 长寿和耐用是他们选择PVC的首要原因. When these same water supply professionals were asked to rank PVC against the other common types of pressure pipes for life expectancy, PVC排名第一. 【来源:莫泽,.P.凯洛格商学院(Kellogg, Kenneth G., “聚氯乙烯(PVC)管道性能的评估,AWWA研究基金会, 丹佛, 科罗拉多州, 1994.]

Uni-Bell has an extensive collection of technical papers 和 experience articles that cover the subject of water 和 sewer pipe longevity in detail. These items are available, free of charge, by contacting Uni-Bell. (http://www.uni-bell.org). They point to the same conclusion that 100 years is an extremely conservative estimate for the service life of a properly designed 和 installed PVC pipe.

是的,他们可以. 因为PVC管材产品有很长的使用寿命, not much pipe is currently available for recycling as it is still in use. 虽然目前的标准一般不允许回收使用过的管道到新的认证管道. PVC pipe producers can recycle nearly all production scrap in-house. 由于PVC是一种热塑性塑料,PVC管可以简单地重新打磨, 粉碎后返回挤压工艺制作新管材.

All PVC pipes are formulated with additives to resist degradation from sunlight. 然而 an aesthetic change in color may develop when exposed outdoors for long periods of time. This shading of color occurs 只有 on the surface of the PVC pipe 和 is of a very shallow depth; measured usually at less than 0.001英寸. 鉴于此, any sun-bleached pipe supplied by mg老虎机平台™ Manufacturing is covered under our st和ard product warranty.

关于这一问题的研究, 单铃聚氯乙烯管协会进行了一项研究,以确定紫外线辐射对聚氯乙烯管的影响, in which pipe was placed in racks throughout the United States for a period of two years. 结果表明,拉伸强度和弹性模量几乎没有变化, while the impact strength remained well within the governing ASTM requirements.

总之, it has been determined that ultraviolet degradation will not have significant adverse effects on the mechanical properties of underground formulated PVC pipe.

PVC pipe 和 gaskets can still be used after prolonged storage above ground under normal conditions, 除非有明显的退化迹象(如开裂),否则不需要更换垫圈。. Per the above, pipe can be stored up to (but not limited to) two years above ground. 关于垫片, our st和ard gaskets are formulated to withst和 UV radiation under common storage practices of PVC pipe.

有关紫外线照射的详情,请参阅mg老虎机平台的技术公报:
日光照射对PVC管及管道的影响

PVC pipe, while combustible, does not continue to burn once a flame source is removed. 火灾死亡的一个主要原因是暴露于一氧化碳, 它是由普通材料和产品如木材生产的, 家具, 地毯和织物. 据估计,塑料管道系统占建筑中所有可燃产品质量的不到1%.

Rieber gasket: A steel wire or steel strip insert is incorporated in the gasket, 这有助于“锁定”垫圈在钟环槽. 这个垫圈是不可拆卸的, 和 higher insertion forces may be encountered compared to the non-locked-in gasket.

Non-Rieber gasket: This non-locked-in gasket is typically pre-installed from our factory. Ensure that the ring groove is clean should this ring be removed 和 re-installed in the field.

经过以上说明, both gasket designs conform to the same st和ards (gasket: ASTM F477, 和 joint qualification: ASTM D3139) 和 installation procedures for our Ring-Tite IPS PVC pipe. Joint preparation 和 assembly considerations include the following:

  1. Ensure the bell, gasket 和 spigot are clean prior to 和 during assembly.
  2. 确保垫圈均匀地固定在环槽内.
  3. 涂抹润滑剂均匀且只涂抹在螺纹端部. Applying lubricant on the gasket may introduce lubricant onto the ring groove, 使戒指容易移位.
  4. 只插入到参考标记之前. 不要把龙头刺进或“拧”进钟里.
  5. 插入时对准插销, 警惕过度的抵抗, 这可能表明垫圈脱落或润滑不完全.

mg老虎机平台的联合设计有被证实的历史, 和 we assure you that our pipe will perform as intended when installed as recommended.

The pressure rating of PVC pipe is established by dividing the maximum long-term pressure capacity of the pipe by the desired factor of safety, 通常是2.0. The C900 pressure class is derived in a similar manner; however, a safety factor of 2.使用5. 也 note that a surge allowance is included within the safety factor. Although PVC pipe can withst和 short-term hydrostatic pressure applications at levels substantially higher than the pressure rating or class, the allowable pressure is properly based on the product’s long-term strength. Research 和 investigations have accumulated vast quantities of data that clearly substantiate the reliability of PVC pipe pressure rating 和 pressure class values. 如AWWA所述, C900 Pressure Class is defined as the “pipe’s designated design capacity (psi) that corresponds with its recommended safe sustained operating pressure”. Pressure class designations include an allowance for pressure surges above the maximum sustained operating pressure caused by instantaneous velocity changes of 2 ft/sec. Pressure class designations are based on long-term pressure rating at 73.4华氏度.

AWWA C900有一个“压力等级”的设计方法基于2.5安全系数. 压力等级使用2.5比2的安全系数.0通常用于设计. 除了提高安全系数, a surge allowance equal to surge pressure created by instantaneously stopping a column of water traveling 2 feet per second in the system has been allowed for in each pressure class. The motivation for this design approach is to supply a piping product that is intended for use inside the "looped" perimeter of an urban water system where piping system geometry is complex.

AWWA C905的“压力等级”设计方法是基于2.0安全系数. AWWA C905 is intended for use as water transmission piping where long straight runs are the norm 和 system geometry is more simplistic. Surge pressures are easily predictable 和 should be accounted for in design.

ASTM D2241有一个“压力等级”的设计方法基于2.0安全系数. 再次强调,涌浪计算是设计师的责任.

ASTM D1785标准管道(40,80 & 120) does not conform to the same design approach as the above-mentioned products. The products listed above offer a pressure capacity independent of pipe size, whereas the schedule product pressure ratings vary between different pipe diameters.

All classes of mg老虎机平台’s Blue Brute pressure pipe are UL 1285 listed for water mains as well as being tested 和 certified to ANSI / NSF St和ard 61. PVC细胞分类在ASTM D 1784定义为12454. The bell consists of an integral wall section with a factory installed, solid cross-section elastomeric gasket to allow for expansion 和 contraction at each joint. Joint design shall meet ASTM D 3139 performance testing requirements, with which the elastomeric gasket is manufactured in compliance with ASTM F 477. Each section of pipe with integral bell has been tested to four times the pressure class for a minimum of 5 seconds as a matter of routine quality control testing. mg老虎机平台’s Blue Brute pipe does not meet AWWA C-111; this st和ard is for Ductile Iron Pipe.

The recommended maximum test pressure of installed PVC pressure pipe is 1.50 times the anticipated working pressure of the system; however, 如果测试压力超过额定压力, 最大试验压力应为额定压力. 除了, in no case should the test pressure exceed the rating of the valves or fittings, 哪个是更少的. 典型的测试持续时间是2小时. Ensure that all the air is removed from the pipe prior to testing.

mg老虎机平台™ does allow testing of the system to 50 psi above the rated pressure for C900管 只有. 对于DR 14c900管道,这将是250 psi. Make sure that the valves, fittings, 和 thrust blocks will be able to h和le the extra pressure. 关于管道的许用压力,AWWA C900标准与所有其他PVC管道标准相比是保守的, 但这确实改变了按此标准生产的DR 14管的允许额定压力为200 psi的事实.

mg老虎机平台的 C900C905 PVC压力管 must conform to the stringent requirements of the following st和ards: ASTM F 477 – St和ard Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe, ASTM D 3139 -使用弹性密封件的塑料压力管接头的标准规范.

根据ASTM D 3139, these products must conform to the Internal Pressure Test where the product is subjected to 50% of the rated pressure for 60 minutes 和 2.额定压力的5倍,再加60分钟. 然后进行快速爆破试验. 也, 根据ASTM D 3139, the pipe is subjected to a Vacuum Test in which the joint shall withst和 a vacuum of 22 inches of mercury for one hour with no leakage. 除了, each piece of pipe is hydrostatically tested to 4 times the Pressure Class (C900) or 2 times the Pressure Rating (C905) for 5 seconds prior to shipment.

The terms "dimension ratio" 和 "st和ard dimension ratio" are widely used in the PVC pipe industry. 这两个术语指的是相同的比率, which is a dimensionless term that is obtained by dividing the average outside diameter of the pipe by the minimum pipe wall thickness.

DR_formula.jpg

尺寸比和标准尺寸比的发展是出于方便而不是必要. 它们的建立是为了在国际上简化塑料管规格的标准化. Since these define a constant ratio between outer diameter 和 wall thickness, 它们提供了一种简单的方法来指定产品尺寸,以保持恒定的机械性能,而不管管道尺寸. 换句话说, 对于给定的DR或SDR, pressure capacity 和 pipe stiffness remain constant regardless of pipe size.

尽管DR和SDR是同义词, one minor difference between them is that SDR refers 只有 to a particular series of numbers, i.e., 51, 41, 32.5 26 21等等. This series of "preferred numbers" is based on a geometric progression, 是由法国工程师查尔斯·雷纳德发明的. 这些数字通常被称为“雷纳德数字”."

DR这个术语被广泛使用, in 1975, 随着AWWA C900的出版, 小口径PVC压力管的生产由谁主导. AWWA allowed the desired pressure capacity to dictate wall thickness. Since the OD/t values generated did not happen to fall on any of Renard's Numbers, AWWA将“标准”一词从特别提款权术语中移除.

It is interesting to note that the most widely used product for small diameter sanitary sewer in the U.S., ASTM D3034, SDR 35,在术语上提供了明显的矛盾. While 35 is not a Renard Number, it is still referred to as a st和ard dimension ratio. 事实上, D3034中的所有OD/t比率都被列为sdr,无论它们是否包含在Renard的“首选数字”中. 这可能是为了方便起见. D3034 was written in 1972, prior to the popularization of the DR term. Accordingly, ASTM may have allowed all OD/t ratios to be called SDRs.

底线很简单:这两个术语是可以互换的. 特别提款权= = OD博士/ t.

mg老虎机平台的重力下水管符合ASTM D 3034 (46 psi管道刚度控制)的要求,适用于尺寸4 "至15 ". Likewise, the cell classification of these products is 12454 or 13364 as defined in ASTM D 1784. The joint design meets ASTM D 3212 performance testing requirements, thereby assuring a watertight joint that does not exceed an infiltration / exfiltration allowance of 25 gallons / inch diameter / mile / day. The gasket for this joint assembly is made of an elastomeric gasket in compliance with ASTM F 477. Pipe sizes 4” through 15” contain a factory installed, locked-in gasket. Product should be installed in accordance with mg老虎机平台’s PVC Gravity Sewer Installation Guide.

mg老虎机平台’s gravity sewer PVC pipe can be air tested per ASTM F 1417 – “St和ard Test Method for Installation Acceptance of Plastic Gravity Sewer Lines Using Low-Pressure Air”. Per this specification, testing pressures are regulated between 3.5 to 4.0psig最大允许测试压力为9psig. It is not recommended that air-testing pressures exceed this limit due to worker safety issues.

Flexible pipe derives its soil load carrying capacity from its flexibility. 土壤负荷下, the pipe tends to deflect (reduction of pipe diameter in the vertical direction), 从而在管道两侧形成被动的土壤支撑. 同时, the ring deflection re­lieves the pipe of the major portion of the vertical soil load, which is then carried by the surrounding soil through the mechanism of an arching action over the pipe. 挠度的允许范围已由ASTM (7.5%)和AWWA (5%).

The Modified Iowa Equation is used for predicting deflection in buried flexible pipe:

def_formula.png

地点:
DL =挠度滞后系数=1.0(典型的)
K =床上用品常数=0.1(典型的)
P =棱镜载荷=管道上土壤的重量
W' =活荷载
E =弹性模量= PVC的最小压力40000psi
DR =尺寸比(OD/t)
E' =土壤反应模量

soil_chart.jpg

This final parameter required to determine predicted pipe deflection is the Modulus of Soil Reaction. amst霍华德, 美国填海局的, compiled a table of average E' values for various soil types 和 densities.

mg老虎机平台’s SDR 35 PVC sewer pipe has a minimum pipe stiffness of 46 psi. When installed in accordance with the recommendations in our installation guide, this pipe should have a maximum deflection limit for a non-pressure application of 7.5%. Note: this is for ring deflection of the pipe, not axial deflection at the joint.

mg老虎机平台™ does not recommend any deflection at the joint for any of our products. Uni-Bell’s recommendation is that offset at the joint OR uniformly bending the pipe is allowable; however, Uni-Bell不建议使用相同长度的管道. 以mg老虎机平台的8”SDR 35下水管道为例, 所述管道可沿管身均匀弯曲. There is a minimum radius of curvature, which for this pipe is 200 feet. Per the following calculation, this allows curving across one 20-foot length piece of 5.73°.

弧长= p r = (3.14) x(200英尺.) = 628 ft.
Curve per 20’ length / 180° = length of one piece / length of arc
曲线/ 20 '长度/ 180°= 20英尺. / 628 ft.
因此:每20 '长度曲线= 5.73°
*请参阅下面的最小曲率半径图. 点击图片放大

faq1-lg.png

The pipe should be assembled above ground, in a straight line, then curved 和 laid in the trench. 所有的曲率都是由管子长度的弯曲引起的. 接缝处没有变形.

*请参阅下面的最小曲率半径图. 点击图片放大

faq2-lg.png

The appropriate conservative "n" value for minimum slope design of PVC sewer pipe is 0.009,由实际测试数据正确证明. 下面简要描述了这个值的合理性.

For many years it has been popular 和 convenient to use a single "n" value for all pipe materials. 然而, 技术上没有数据支持单一的“n”值方法, 和 the most cost-effective sewer designs are precluded by such an over-simplified design criterion. The recognition of "n" value variations among the comm只有 used sewer pipe materials is long overdue.

No published technical study has ever reported an "n" value as high as 0.013 for a PVC sewer pipeline either in-service or in the laboratory. 尚未有技术研究报道PVC下水管具有与粘土相同的水力特性, 混凝土或石棉水泥在任何条件下. The major engineering textbooks dealing with sewer design have yet to address plastic pipe hydraulics. ASCE和WPCF《mg老虎机平台》列出了一系列“塑料”管道的“n”值, i.e., 0.011-0.015, but the authors have not supplied any evidence supporting their recommendations. There is absolutely no scientific basis or technical justification for requiring the use of a 0.设计PVC排污管道时的013“n”值.

The maximum operating temperature for mg老虎机平台’s PVC pipe is 140 degrees Fahrenheit. 对于有温度变化的情况, special consideration should be given to the thermal expansion 和 contraction of the pipe.

PVC pipe is a light weight yet strong material when compared to many alternatives. A length of PVC pipe will weigh one-fifth of an equivalent size section of cast iron pipe, 更容易安装. 该产品很容易组装在溶剂焊接或垫圈版本,两者都是无泄漏的, 一旦正确组装.

mg老虎机平台™建议mg老虎机平台的管道安装的方式是,使水龙头上的装配线与钟形均匀. This also provides greater ease of inspection when verifying proper assembly from the top of the trench.

A joint that is assembled per our recommendations will exhibit a gap, in which the beveled end of the spigot is stopped short of being fully bottomed out in the bell. 这个间隙应该在允许的公差1 / 2”到2.5”. Studies have shown that this gap poses no significant effect in terms of head loss or clogging, 并得到了已证实的完整功能线的历史支持. 尽管将龙头向下插入钟的颈部可能会产生一个关节,在电视上播放时看起来更有吸引力, 这种连接也更有可能出现泄漏或断裂,这是由于失去灵活性或应力过度组装. By assembling the joint so that the reference mark (or assembly mark) is even with the bell, 可以适应现场的典型变化. The variations may result from expansion or contraction of the pipe, or the variations may result from deflection at the joint due to soil movement in the trench.

用于安装过程中管道挠曲, 请参阅每个管道的安装指南.

mg老虎机平台’s procedures for installing Rieber 和 non-Rieber gaskets:

If you have received a combined shipment of mg老虎机平台™ pipe that contains both Rieber 和 non-Rieber gaskets, 请注意以下事项:非Rieber和Rieber垫圈适用于不同类型的mg老虎机平台™管道. They are both of superior quality 和 mg老虎机平台™ will st和 behind them with a 100% warranty provided you follow our recommended installation procedures, 这是:

  1. 当使用相同类型的垫圈安装mg老虎机平台™管道时, which means Rieber to Rieber pipe or non-Rieber to non-Rieber pipe, you should use the reference marks on the respective type spigot ends.
  2. 当安装两种不同类型的衬垫管时, mg老虎机平台™ makes the following recommendations to account for the fact that the Rieber joint has a longer bell 和 reference mark when compared to the non-Rieber pipe:
  • 非利伯斯盖特到利伯加盖贝尔
    遵循非利伯管参考标记在龙头端.
  • 利伯斯皮格特呼叫非利伯Gasket Bell
    Do not insert the pipe all the way to the reference mark on the Rieber pipe spigot end. Instead, use the reference mark that is shown on the non-Rieber pipe. This will require some measurements from JM’s non-Rieber reference mark.

按照上面的建议, Customers will not experience joint problems such as over-assembly, 受损的钟声, 或破裂的钟声.
注意:PVC管道在安装期间的最低推荐温度应超过40华氏度.

Allowable depth of bury can be calculated based on the allowable deflection as described above. PVC products have been installed successfully at depths of 50 feet or more. 以下表格供快速参考.

埋地AWWA C900 PVC管计算挠度(%)
buried_chart.jpg

SDR 35 (ps46) PVC管测得的长期挠度(%)
buried_chart2.jpg

详情请参阅: PVC管沟施工

距离刚性路面顶部或柔性路面底部的距离,建议最少为一英尺. 浅层覆盖层(1 ' - 3 '), 4 " -16 "范围内的管道推荐使用符合ASTM D2321标准的I类或II类材料,至少95%的Proctor密度. 角埋件材料不大于0.75英寸和圆形岩石不应大于1.50英寸. 也, the maximum particle size should be no greater than 10% of the pipe’s diameter.

详情请参阅:
C900 / C905 PVC管埋深图
PVC排水管埋深图系列14和28
PVC污水管埋深图
PVC管埋深

mg老虎机平台的管钟可以铺设在上游或下游. 两种方向都没有显著的水力效益, 和 therefore we leave the decision to the discretion of the installer. 然而, mg老虎机平台™ recommends that the bell ends point in the direction of work progress to save extra effort. It is easier to insert the spigot into the bell than it is to push the bell over the spigot. This also reduces the risk of rubble being scooped under the gasket. The direction will not adversely affect the performance of the pipe.

详情请参阅: 密封管总成

Lubricate the spigot end of the pipe, using the lubricant supplied. 一定要覆盖整个龙头端周,特别要注意龙头的斜面端部. Apply the coating with your h和, a cloth, a pad, a sponge or a glove.

警告: 不要润滑钟,特别是垫圈. After spigot end is lubricated, do not allow it to touch the bedding material. 在装配过程中,小块的石头或土壤可能会粘在润滑剂上,并可能卡在套筒和橡胶圈之间. 这可能会导致接头漏气.

正如PVC管与铸铁外径可以连接到机械接头,最初设计用于与球墨铸铁管, C900 PVC管 能直接连接到球墨铸铁管钟上吗, 和球墨铸铁管可连接到C900 PVC管钟.

mg老虎机平台™在加入这些材料时有两个注意事项:

  1. The bevel of the spigot should be made to look like the bevel of the product to which it is being joined. Make a Ductile Iron pipe bevel longer than that which is normally supplied on a Ductile Iron spigot, 和 make a PVC pipe bevel shorter than that which is normally supplied on a PVC pipe spigot. 在工厂使用斜面管作为参考.
  2. The depth of insertion of the assembly should be adjusted to reflect the assembly mark found at the spigot end of the pipe whose bell you are using. Adjust the assembly mark to be shorter on a PVC spigot; 和 adjust the assembly mark to be longer on a Ductile Iron spigot.

如果接头过度装配, 换句话说, 龙头卡在铃颈里了, 关节的灵活性丧失了. 沟槽内不均匀的沉降可能会导致过度组装的接头泄漏-不要超过参考标志进行组装. 正确的装配要求将插头端插入钟内,使其与垫圈接触. 保持管道长度对准. 撑住铃,将龙头端推到垫圈下面, 这样以前完成的关节就不会被进一步插入. Push the spigot into the bell until the assembly mark on the pipe barrel is 冲洗 随着铃声的结束. 不建议刺入,应避免.

如果遇到对插接端插入的阻力过大或参考标记未达到齐平位置, 拆开接头,检查垫圈的位置. 如果它被扭曲或被推出它的座位, 清洁垫, 钟和插口端, reseat the gasket properly (using a factory installed gasket as a guide) 和 repeat the assembly steps. 在组装期间,确保两个长度都在适当的对准位置. 如果垫圈没有错位, measure the distance between the reference mark 和 the spigot end. If necessary, relocate the reference mark if it is out of position.

最后,关节处应该没有轴向偏转. 弯曲的管子, 而不是使关节偏转, 应该在方向上做点小改变吗.